The advancement in technology is the enabler for many new automotive application systems that offer considerable added value to the automotive market with respect to safety, security, comfort and communication, in-car as well as to a car in its environment. Steps in that direction will be introduced during the next decade by means of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A trend is visible towards Highly Automated Driving (HAD) in the long term. New opportunities need to be identified that can turn well-fitting differentiating components and system solutions in appropriate ADAS system configurations of system suppliers in the automotive supply chain and a clear reasoning has to be created between component-level detail and system-level application.
Cardinal was a multi-year public/private long term innovation research program with the goal of acquiring insights in requirements and architectures to facilitate Highly Automated Driving (HAD) from 2020 onwards in cars on public roads under all circumstances. The Cardinal 2013 goals were as follows:
- Impact analysis of requirements, concepts and architectural alternatives with focus on Highly Automated Driving
- Model-based reasoning from components to systems in real-time system interoperability
- Design space exploration under constrained critical system aspects such as safety and real-time communication.
The Cardinal 2014 goals were as follows:
- Provide and analyze scenarios for ADAS architectures addressing real-time performance limitations against future ADAS requirements and the future expected state of technologies in the end-2-end functional chain Sense -Think -Act realized in a networked, distributed platform architecture.
- Model-based system performance analysis and design space exploration under constrained conditions based on n future end-2-end ADAS architectures.
The results of the Cardinal 2013 and Cardinal 2014 project were a key item in the successful experiments on truck platooning as performed by DAF, NXP, Ricardo, TNO in-vehicle safety, and TNO-ESI. This resulted in a successful demo in the European Truck Platooning challenge in which DAF, NXP, Ricardo and NXP, including five other truck platoons participated. This challenge represented large-scale testing of cross border truck platooning to realize a new form of mobility. Related demo’s have been given world-wide and are now the basis for further experiments and productization by both NXP and DAF. Besides the truck platooning results, project resulted for NXP in a sense-think-act architecture and a proof of concept of 802.11p sensor communication. Finally, the projects resulted in a number of papers, e.g. a paper presented at the Intelligent Vehicles Conference.